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Flock of turkeys

UN Tackles Antibiotic Resistance

September 22, 2016

A new declaration by the UN General Assembly is intended to slow the spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms. According to National Public Radio, the resolution "requires countries to come up with a two-year a plan to protect the potency of antibiotics. Countries need to create ways to monitor the use of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture, start curbing that use and begin developing new antibiotics that work." While concerns about "superbugs" are widespread in public health circles, it took data showing the potentially catastrophic economic implications of antibiotic resistance to spur this action. One expert, Ramanan Laxminarayan, is optimistic about the outcomes of this campaign, comparing this effort to a similar one begun by the UN about the HIV pandemic; the article notes, "since 2004, there has been a 45 percent drop in AIDS-related deaths in countries supported by global HIV campaigns."

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Olympic logo made out of mosquito silhouettes

Despite Zika's Spread, Experts Caution Against Overreaction

August 5, 2016

The confluence of the Zika outbreak in Latin America and the Rio Olympic games has led some athletes to make a tough decision: forgoing competition to avoid the disease. This week, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) confirmed homegrown transmissions of the virus in the US. These developments lead to questions about how significant Zika is as a public health hazard, and whether the Olympics will increase its spread into countries that don't currently have it. An article in FiveThirtyEight explains why the latter isn't a major concern: despite Brazil being the origin of the current Zika outbreak, there are a lot more tourists to the entire outbreak area than people traveling to the Olympics. In other words, "a 30-person Olympic delegation and 100 spectators don’t present much additional risk to a country that’s already seeing 50,000 visitors a year from areas with Zika." For countries like the US, which already have an active, mosquito-borne outbreak, experts like Michael Osterholm of Consortium member the Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy (CIDRAP) emphasize the importance of basic public health measures. In an interview on the Diane Rehm Show, Osterholm recommended focusing on "eliminating the breeding sites – the water sources, the garbage. We now live in a plastic garbage world where one bottle cap sitting in a ditch is more than enough, is a great breeding site for this mosquito." CIDRAP maintains a Zika website that's a up-to-date, scientifically accurate, and global in scope; here's a link.

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Aedes aegypti mosquito that carries Zika virus

Human Role in Proliferation of Zika Mosquito Examined

June 21, 2016

The implacable nature of evolution means attempts to eradicate Aedes aegypti mosquitoes – the species that carries Zika virus and other diseases – are doomed to fail, according to an opinion piece in the LA Times by Prof. Marlene Zuk, PhD, of the College of Biological Sciences. Zuk describes the complex interaction between mosquitoes, humans and ecological systems that have led to emergence of a bug that's been "domesticated" to thrive in urban environments. Michael Osterholm, director of Consortium member the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP), is quoted in the article on past, failed efforts to eliminate Aedes aegypti, noting "'evolutionary biology is the gravity' – the force – that underpins the progress and control of Zika."

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